January 23, 2014
Buying a commercial property is totally different than buying a house, so don’t treat them as identical transactions. Continue reading for some wonderful tips to help you though the commercial real estate buying process.
If you’re a buyer or if you’re a seller, it’s important that you negotiate. Fight for the best price possible and make sure that all parties involved listen to you.
Don’t make any big real estate purchases until you’ve evaluated the unemployment rates, income levels, and expansion rates of the area. Properties centrally located near universities and hospitals will have a consistently higher value, and it will sell more quickly.
Practice calm and patience when you are looking into the real estate market. Never rush into an investment. Going too fast could result in a loss that you could have seen coming had you stopped, researched, analyzed, evaluated, and cross-checked the potential with your desired goals. It may take a year for your needed investment to come about in the market.
Consider online references that contain information written for both real estate novices and veterans. There is no such thing as having too much knowledge, so it is always a good idea to learn as much as you can.
One of the most critical considerations for valuing a commercial property is its physical location. Find out more about the neighborhood. Look at the growth of areas that are similar. You want to make sure that in 5 or 10 years down the road, the area is still a descent and growing area.
Remember that buying a commercial property and everything that goes along with it can take a lot of time. First you will need to find a property that you think is worth purchasing, and you may have to remodel or repair it. Don’t throw in the towel due to the massive hours needed. Your patience will eventually be rewarded through profits.
Educate yourself on the meaning of net operating income (NOI), a term associated with commercial real estate used for investment purposes. You need to keep your numbers positive if you are going to be successful.
For a commercial property you plan to rent out, make sure it is a solid construction with a simple design. Tenants will be interested by buildings that look well-cared for. These types of buildings are easier to fix for everyone and they might not need as many fixes.
Before you talk about a lease in commercial real estate, make sure to lower anything that might be thought of as events of default, wherever possible. This will greatly lessen the likelihood that the tenant might default. Once a default happens, you’ll be in big trouble!
Make a checklist to compare details when looking at several properties. Accept the proposal responses from the first round, but be sure to inform the property owners directly if you decide to go further in your inquiries. Do not fear letting the owners know that you are interested in other properties. It could even get you a good deal.
Before you begin seeking commercial real estate property, be sure to identify your requirements. You should write down the features you are looking for, such as size or settings.
You might need to make improvements to your new space before you can use it. These may be simply applying new paint or a change in furnishings. However, many people find they need to take out or add walls to make modifications to the basic floor plan. The contract you negotiate should clearly spell out whether you or your landlord will pay for these changes, or whether the cost will be shared and in what proportions.
As you might imagine, there are a multitude of considerations, when you are contemplating an investment in commercial real estate. In order to get the best possible deal, be sure to follow this article’s advice.
November 8, 2013
You, along with many other people, probably hope to find information related to purchasing real estate that is simple to comprehend. This article will help you every step of the way in the home buying process. Reading these tips will only take you a few minutes and you will be able to understand quickly how you can use them.
You need to stay moderate when you are dealing with real estate purchases. Do not be too extreme with your offers. Oftentimes, people err on the side of aggressiveness in order to try to establish the most favorable transaction on their part. However, this technique frequently backfires on them. Be clear and firm about what you want but let your lawyer or realtor do the negotiation for you.
Every real estate agent should contact former clients at holidays and at anniversaries of their purchase date. When your former clients receive a holiday card from you, they will remember how helpful your were when they purchases their home. At the end of your greeting, let them know that you function by means of referrals and you would really appreciate it if they recommended you to their other friends.
When you have kids, or are planning to start a family in the future, make sure you buy a home that can accommodate everyone. Safety is an important quality for a home to have as well. Consider the stairs and the swimming pool as risks when looking at a home. You will be sure that your house is safe if there were children brought up in it.
When seeking a new home, think long-term. Even if you currently do not have children, if you are planning to have kids in the future, it is a good idea to find out if the area schools are of high quality.
You should be willing to show a degree of flexibility. Maybe you can’t live in the most perfect community and in the most perfect home, but you might be able to do one of those things. If you can’t find the perfect home in the correct area, find a less than optimal home in that area.
To get the best deal on real estate, do some repair and remodeling work. You’ll experience the benefit of a fast return on investment and increase in property value. The value of the home should increase more than the investment.
You have to have a thorough understanding of the terms of your mortgage whenever you are purchasing a home. Understanding these mortgage terms will avoid later confusion regarding the amount of the monthly payment as well as the total coast paid over the lifetime of the loan.
When you are preparing to purchase a home, you already know the asking price but determining your offer is an important consideration. By talking to the seller, both parties can come to a final, mutually agreeable price.
When you are ready to make an offer on a home, ask the sellers to consider financial incentives such as help with any closing costs. Many people ask sellers to buy down interest rates for a couple of years. Keep in mind, though, if you request financial incentives from the seller, he will probably be less willing to negotiate on the home’s selling price.
In conclusion, we have provided you some of the most crucial aspects regarding buying real estate. We hope that you not only were able to learn something, but that you also will be able to successfully apply it. Follow our advice and you will be one step closer to being an expert in this subject.
August 24, 2013
There is a lot more possibility of making money in commercial property than there is in residential property. It can be a little harder to find the good opportunities, though. Here is some advice to assist you in making better informed decisions regarding commercial property investments.
Whether you want to get into real estate or you’ve been into it for a while, visit some websites that will help you find out how to invest in commercial real estate. It is wise to learn all you can, as it is impossible to know too much.
Location is just as important with commercial real estate as it is with residential properties. Think about the type of neighborhood the property is in. Look at the growth of areas that are similar. You’re not only thinking about the here and now; you want to look a decade down the line too. Pick an area with the potential for sustainable growth.
Make sure that the broker you decide to work with has experience in the commercial market. Look for brokers who specialize in commercial real estate. You and this broker should enter into an agreement that is exclusive.
Always make sure that utilities can be accessed from the commercial property you are looking into. The utilities you will need for your business go beyond electricity; you will also need water, sewer and gas, as well.
You should carefully consider the neighborhood in which you purchase commercial real estate. A business located in a well-to-do neighborhood might be more successful, since the potential customers will be able to spend more. If your business is a bit more shady, like a rent-to-own store, payday loan outlet, or pawn shop, it’s better to locate in a poor neighborhood.
Have a professional do an inspection of your commercial property prior to you listing it as available on the market. You can fix any problems right away so you have the best available property.
When you are selling a commercial property, always make sure to include all buyers; this includes local and non-local buyers. Many people target their advertising to local buyers only, thinking that those buyers are their market. Many private investors are willing and able to purchase properties outside their immediate community if the price is right.
If you are thinking about hiring any real estate professional, read over all their disclosures. Some agents work for a dual agency. Dual agency is when a real estate agency is responsible for the representation of both parties involved in a transaction. This means that the agent is representing the interests of the lessor and lessee simultaneously. Dual agency must be disclosed by both parties and they need to agree to it.
When starting out in property investment, it is in your best interest to stay focused on one property type at a time. Select a type of property that you think would make a good place to begin, and focus on it. It is far better to dominate one area of the commercial real estate market than to spread your investing order many different types of commercial buildings.
Before you purchase any item at all, set up a meeting with a reputable tax adviser. You will find out how much this property will end up costing you and what percentage of your income will be taxed. Work together with your tax adviser to locate an area that have low taxes.
Now you know how to go about investing in commercial real estate. Maintain flexibility and think fast so you can steer your way through the constantly changing market of commercial real estate. With this approach, you will be able to identify hidden opportunities, and make some very profitable deals.
June 9, 2013
Buying commercial properties can be a dichotomy. You may make enormous profits or suffer large losses. Carefully consider the specific type of property that you are most interested in working with, and line up possible sources of funding. This article will carefully guide you through the real estate process.
Take photographs of the property. Take pictures of the damages, for instance spots and stains, holes or even discoloration on the bathtub.
When entering the commercial real estate market, patience is perhaps your best ally. Do not invest into anything before thinking carefully. You will be full of regrets if you are stuck with a property that is not what you expected. It may take a year for your needed investment to come about in the market.
If you are renting or leasing, be sure to know about pest control arrangements. This is especially important if the region is known for certain types of pest infestations. If this is the case, ask specifically what the landlord will do with regard to pest control.
An essential fundamental of commercial property is location, location, location. Consider how the neighborhood will affect business. Compare the growth of the property’s neighborhood to similar neighborhoods around the country. You need to be reasonably certain that the area will still be decent and growing 10 years from now.
Your investment might be very time consuming at first. Good opportunities can be found if you look, and after you have made a purchase, the property may require repairs or remodeling. Do not cut corners on this process, just because it might take up a lot of time. Once you get the property ready, you will be compensated for years to come.
When making the selection of brokers to work with, be sure to find out how much experience they have on the commercial market. Be sure that they specialize in the area that you are buying or selling in. With that broker, you also want to enter into exclusive agreements.
Educate yourself about the measurements of NOI: Net Operating Income. In order to succeed, you should focus on keeping your figures in the positive.
Look at the surrounding neighborhood before you decide on purchasing a specific commercial property. Purchasing a property in a neighborhood that is filled with well-to-do potential clients will give you a lot better chance of becoming well-to-do yourself! You might want to buy a property in a less affluent neighborhood if you are selling products or services that less affluent people would find attractive.
Advertise the commercial property to both locals and non-locals. Too many sellers assume that their property is likely to only sell to someone local. This is a way of thinking you should avoid. A lot of investors buy property that is not where they want it if it is a good enough price.
Tour any properties you are considering for purchase. Consider taking a professional contractor along with you as you look over the properties that you consider buying. Make the preliminary proposals, and open the negotiating table. Before you decide whether you want to accept an offer or not, be sure to carefully evaluate all counteroffers.
When writing up a letter of intent, make sure to keep your offer simple and straightforward, focusing on the bigger issues at first and then figuring out those pesky, little details later. It will be less stressful to negotiate and can also make it easier to come to terms on the smaller things as well.
As was mentioned earlier in this article, commercial real estate is not a free source of money. You will be successful if you invest money, time and efforts. Even after all that, it’s still possible to lose financially.
March 25, 2013
There is a lot more profits in commercial real estate than residential. However, finding profitable opportunities can be somewhat time consuming and difficult. Therefore, the following tips will make it easier for you to get good deals in commercial real estate.
Websites with abundant real estate investment information are worthwhile references for novices and experienced investors. You can never overdose on knowledge. Learn everything you can about real estate.
Secure the proper financing prior to hunting for property to buy. There is a big difference between a home loan and a commercial loan. Commercial loan products actually offer some benefits that residential loans don’t. While a commercial loan will require larger down payments, banks will more readily allow you to borrow money from a business partner. You are also protected from personal liability if things go wrong.
Don’t make any offers on commercial property before you’ve found a lender. Discuss the situation with your loved ones as well as other investors, and create a list of good lenders available to you. Research all the lenders on your list and determine which one you’d like to work with. Talk to the lender and make arrangements for financing prior to purchasing your first property. Your real estate agent should be able to provide you with a checklist of things you should do before getting a commercial loan approved.
Before you invest in real estate, be certain that you understand the implications regarding your taxes. Investors receive depreciation benefits as well as interest deductions. However, investors sometimes get “phantom income”, this is a type of income which is taxed but it isn’t received as cash. It is important to know about this kind of income prior to investing.
It is important to learn and understand a metric used in commercial real estate investment called NOI or Net Operating Income. In order to succeed, you should focus on keeping your figures in the positive.
Whether you are buying or selling, don’t shy away from negotiation. Make sure that you are heard and that you fight for a fair price for the property.
When you are composing a letter of intent, you should emphasize simplicity by negotiating on the bigger issues first, then addressing the minor issues later in the negotiations. This approach lowers the overall tension level and actually makes it easier to reach agreement on the details at the end.
Check all disclosures of the chosen real estate agent that you wish to work with. Keep an eye out for dual agencies. In this situation, the agent will represent the buyer and seller. In simpler terms, both the landlord and the tenant are simultaneously represented by the agency. If dual agency is the case, it should be out in the open and both the landlord and the tenant should be in agreement with the arrangement.
Just focus on one specific investment and narrow your time to that if you’re new to investing. Choose one property type you would like to start with and give it your undivided attention. It is in your best interest to stay focused on one type and do your best, than to spread yourself too thin and just do average at multiple investments.
For a commercial property you plan to rent out, make sure it is a solid construction with a simple design. These are the most likely to quickly invite tenants into the space, because they know it is well-cared for. In addition, these properties are low maintenance because they don’t frequently need repairs, a benefit to the owners, as well as the tenants.
After reading the article above, you should have a better grasp of the basics of investing in commercial real estate. Exercise flexibility and quick thinking while you use the market. These attributes will allow you to spot good real estate deals and capitalize on them.
There are always industrial and commercial properties, but these types of properties do not receive preferential listings that are given to residential property. You must know where to look, and this article will give you some tips so that you know just the right places to find good commercial properties.
Make certain to think about any sorts of environmental issues. For instance, your property could be endangered by the presence of hazardous waste. As the property owner, the burden of getting these issues resolved rests on your shoulders, even if they initiated during a previous owner’s time.
As you hunt for prospective properties, you should keep an eye out for real estate opportunities that are larger than you are looking for. Managing a large property is really not a lot more difficult than managing a small one, yet your potential for earning is far greater with a larger property.
Think about the environment around your property. The one who’ll have to clean up any environmental waste on your property is you. For example, do you want to buy a property that lies in a flood zone? That is a decision you need to think long and hard about. Certain agencies are available in most areas that will provide substantial information regarding the local environment, its conditions, weather patterns, and any concerns you should have as a real estate owner.
There are a number of significant differences between commercial and residential loans. For example, commercial loans often require a higher down payment. Look for lenders who have the best rates and keep your personal credit and your business line of credit in good standing for the best chances of qualifying for a loan. Also, make sure to keep your ear open for the best investments.
Seek the council of an experienced real estate attorney to help you with your commercial purchase. If something happens out of the ordinary with your endeavors, you’ll want the best lawyer working on your side.
You may need to make some changes to the commercial space you just rented before moving in. It could be something simple, such as paining walls, rearranging appliances or furniture or hanging things. Sometimes, you may need to move a wall in order to create a better floor plan. When negotiating, you should discuss who will pay for the improvements you’ll have to make, and should see if the current owner will cover some of your costs.
An important component to your commercial investment is determining your rental allocation strategies. You need to calculate how much income you need to allocate to your bills, and then how much profit you’ll want on top of that, before you start the search for a tenant. This way, you’ll be better able to project the profit you will likely make by renting to a tenant for a year.
Regardless of whether you are buying or selling, you should negotiate. Be heard and fight to get a fair property price.
In order to find a reputable real estate broker who is going to suit your needs, ask your preferred choices some questions, including their idea of what constitutes a success and a failure. Also inquire how they personally measure their results. This will help you assess their working strategies. Don’t work with any real estate broker whose beliefs and methods aren’t in line with your own.
When financing your commercial real estate endeavors, you must make sure you have financial statements for your business or yourself. The bank won’t be able to help you at all if you can’t prove to them that you have the means to cover any loans you get to buy commercial real estate.
Finding the appropriate commercial real estate property for your needs is one half of the battle. The other is actually obtaining it. A little knowledge can go a long way.
In most cases, commercial properties has a lot more potential for profits when compared to a residential property. Although, finding a good opportunity can be a bit tricky. Read on to find tips which will help you understand commercial real estate better, giving you the ability to make sound decisions in the future.
Be certain the commercial property you are considering has good utilities access. Your particular business might need additional services, such as cable, but at the minimum there should probably be sewer, water, phone, electric and gas.
When interviewing potential brokers, ask them to tell you about their experience level with the type of commercial investments you are interested in. Make sure that their particular business focus includes what you are interested in. Sign an exclusive agreement once you’ve found a broker you want to work with.
You need to figure in the possibility of inflation when investing in real estate. Investors in the past were protected by a clause that was built into any agreement that adjusted for inflation using Consumer Price Index comparisons. However, in today’s commercial real estate market, you would be hard pressed to find anyone willing to make such an agreement, putting you at a higher risk of falling victim to higher inflation rates.
When choosing between two different types of commercial properties, it’s best to look at things on a bigger scale. If you will be financing the purchase, you should take into account that doing so will require just as much time and effort for a small lot as it will for a larger lot. However, buying several units will cause the price of an individual unit to decrease.
As with other property purchases, pay attention to the three Ls: location, location, and location. Find out more about the neighborhood. Cross-check similar areas to see how they are growing. You’ll want to choose an area that is on the upswing and will continue growing for at least a decade into the future.
Doing so means that you can confirm that all terms match up with the rent roll, as well as the pro forma. If you concentrate on these points, you can find an issue with the property.
When you are selling a commercial property, always make sure to include all buyers; this includes local and non-local buyers. Too many people assume that only the locals are interested in buying property in the area. A lot of investors buy property that is not where they want it if it is a good enough price.
You can find different ways of saving on costs of repair when it comes to cleanup. If you own the property, you’re usually responsible for cleaning up or paying for it. It can be very expensive for you to clean up your property and dispose of the waste. Find a company that does environmental assessments and have them do an analysis and report. Whilst such a report can be expensive, you should view the cost as an investment that could save you a fortune in clean up fees.
If you are presented with a standard commercial lease form, do not sign it immediately. Take your time. Big real estate companies will sometimes slip additional covenants or requirements into the lease document, which can at times be very long. By carefully perusing the document, you’ll avoid potential headaches and heartaches that a commercial lease sometimes produces.
You now have a clear understanding of what it takes to work with commercial real estate. Remain flexible and continue to stay nimble as you make your way through the many steps leading to owning your own property. This will put you in a position where you can capitalize on amazing opportunities which others miss, and end up making a deal which brings you great profits.
Commercial property investment has good profit potential, but patience and learning are required. The tips you just read have helped many real estate investors make a tidy profit, and if you follow these tips, there is no reason why you can’t follow in their footsteps.
Establish the needs of your business before looking at buildings. Know exactly what kind of office space you will be using. If you have plans for future expansion, it is in your best interest to purchase a larger space that can accommodate future growth. If the market is currently low, this can save you a great deal of money.
Go as big as you can when you’re looking at a commercial real estate investment. If you are considering purchasing a building with 5 apartments, understand that you could manage one with 50 apartments just as easily. Both sizes require substantial financial investments, but the larger unit will ultimately have a lower cost per unit.
When you are hunting for a permanent home for your growing business, keep in mind that size matters. Invest in property which allows your business to grow as necessary so you can avoid having to buy another property down the road.
Keep your focus on the largest issues when writing your letters of intent. Keep it simple and save the smaller issues for later in the negations. This will make negotiations less tense and make gaining agreement on the smaller issues easier to complete.
Don’t purchase anything until you’re certain that the company you’re dealing with is looking out for your interests. If not, you may eventually pay dearly for an easily avoided mistake.
If you are looking to lease or rent, the issue of pest control is a critical one to address. If you are renting a space that has known vermin problems, be sure to find out exactly who is responsible for pest control.
Consider all of the tax benefits when planning on commercial property investment. Investors receive depreciation benefits as well as interest deductions. However, you also need to be aware of a potential tax problem: income that you have to pay taxes on even though you never actually receive it. You should be mindful of phantom income prior to investing.
Take into consideration the local unemployment levels, average income, and job market before investing in real estate. Your house will sell more quickly and at a higher value if it is near a university, hospital or any large employment center.
Before you enter into any negotiations for a lease on commercial real estate, attempt to decrease anything that may be thought of as a default event. The tenant will then be less likely to violate these terms. You want to avoid any circumstances that could lead to this occurrence.
Reach out to your investors and brokers through newsletters, or on social networking sites to show your continued thanks and interest in them. Don’t go online just to make deals and then fade into obscurity once you’re finished. Be a regular participant in social media so that you can increase your customer base.
You need to realize that every property has a lifetime. If you don’t realize that eventually you are going to have to put money into the property for maintenance or repairs, you will be very disappointed when that times and the associated bills come. The property could need major improvements like a roof replacement or total rewiring. All buildings eventually need maintenance to maintain the quality of your investment. Make sure you develop a plan for the long term to manage repairs such as these.
If you carefully read and apply the tips discussed above, you will be off to a good start in real estate investing. By implementing the tips that you have read, you can enjoy success with the many wonderful commercial real estate investing opportunities that are available.
Purchasing property is becoming popular today, whether as a hobby or for a career. The demand is rising for purchasing property without losing money or falling prey to scams. Now is a good time to get started. Before you get started, however, take a few moments to read these great buying-related tips.
If you’re buying a home for yourself, it’s smart to bring somebody with you who knows about home buying. It is always helpful to have another set of eyes while looking at properties, particularly if that person has experience buying a home. You can even ask them before you arrive to ask things of the realtor as well.
When you officially decide to purchase a home, don’t forget all the other options that are available. Finding the ideal property that falls within your strategy, and satisfies your goals can be time consuming.
Many programs exist to ease the burden of making a down payment, and you have no reason not to see if you qualify for some of them. These programs can make saving to buy a house much less of financial burden for you, especially if you can also convince the seller to handle the purchase’s closing costs.
When you are talking to a real estate agent about buying a property, ask them if they live in the area. If an agent has only recently started working in the area, or has just moved there, then this person will not be as knowledgeable of many details such as traffic conditions and community relations. This is especially true if they are compared to someone who has been there for some time. If it can be done, try to locate a Realtor who is ultimately familiar with the neighborhood, because they have made a long term home there.
Do not forget to a potential home professionally inspected before buying it. It will require a fair amount of money, but the advantage over having someone you know inspect the home is that you can hold a bad inspection against a professional inspector, while there is little you can do to a relative.
Use the internet to find out whether there are any registered sex offenders in the area you are looking to purchase a property in. A real estate agent is not obligated to let you know if there is a sex offender living next door, or anywhere in the neighborhood. Protect yourself by researching on your own.
When you are in the midst of a real estate transaction, prioritize your goals to get the best deal. Know which issues are the most important and which are the least important to you in getting the deal closed. Make sure you stick to the important issues during negotiations. Your secondary goals offer you the opportunity to demonstrate a certain flexibility when you are negotiating.
Do your homework on rental properties. If you want to buy some rental property, do not buy it until you have looked at the rental records for two years. The reason behind this is so that you are sure that the individual who is selling you the property has provided you with the right information about what sort of income you can expect to receive from the property. In addition, you need these records to prove that a rental property has generated income in the past before you can get a mortgage on the property.
Now that you’ve read this article, you should understand why purchasing real estate is so popular. It provides such a wide range of possibilities. Additionally, there is a wealth of information to learn the most effective methods to succeed. If you use the advice in this article, you have a great head start on acquiring the perfect property for your needs.
You are looking for an easy to understand guide to buying real estate. If you want to learn about real estate and how you can take advantage of some great deals, the tips in this article should be right up your alley. This article provides several simple and effective tips in a structured format that is designed to enable you to quickly absorb the information.
Prior to purchasing a piece of property, know everything you possibly can about it. Many individuals get into the real estate market without thinking things through, and they buy properties that they never should have become involved with. This can cost them time and money. Always try to understand as much about your area and all the real estate info available before you even consider buying a property.
Before you run out and purchase a property simply because you like the way it looks, you should first stand back and examine the home as a whole. You should base your decision on the condition and structure of the house. If you just base your decisions on appearance, you risk overlooking serious problems that will be expensive to fix later.
When you are ready to purchase a property, hiring a renowned real estate agent is a must. The Better Business Bureau is a great resource, along with a number of other Internet resources. You can also ask family, co-workers, or friends for recommendations.
If possible, don’t purchase a home that is near a busy road. Though these houses usually cost less when compared to homes in the middle, they are that way for a good reason. The house will be noisy, and you won’t be able to get rid of the house when you need to.
Before you sign a lease agreement for a rental in the future, you should ensure you talk to the future landlord you will have about whether you will have a garden, and if so, who will do the gardening. Some rental properties expect the renter to maintain the outdoor living space or to hire help to take care of it. Others include this in your monthly payments.
It is prudent to hire an attorney. who specializes in real estate law, to help you manage foreclosure purchases. You can experience complications when you are making a foreclosure deal so it is good to have a lawyer with you. Although it may seem like an unnecessary expense, it can potentially save you thousands of dollars.
An approval letter will make your offer more attractive to potential sellers. Waiting for approval can cost more and will stretch out the process of buying the property.
Have a good idea about the different types of homes available in the neighborhood you are looking in. This is essential, because you might not want to buy the best and biggest home there. The reasoning behind this is that you’ll never recoup the value of that house because the smaller houses within the neighborhood will potentially drag down the value of the grandest home in that area.
If you are interested in purchasing a piece of real estate, it is important that you are organized. Pick up a notebook that you can use to write down any info you find in online searches, in the newspaper, or from friends or an agent. You can locate your data all from one source when you need it.
In conclusion, we have provided you some of the most crucial aspects regarding buying real estate. We hope that you not only were able to learn something, but that you also will be able to successfully apply it. Follow our advice and you will be one step closer to being an expert in this subject.